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Setting probabilities for transforms in an augmentation pipeline

Each augmentation in Albumentations has a parameter named p that sets the probability of applying that augmentation to input data.

The following augmentations have the default value of p set 1 (which means that by default they will be applied to each instance of input data): Compose, ReplayCompose, CenterCrop, Crop, CropNonEmptyMaskIfExists, FromFloat, CenterCrop, Crop, CropNonEmptyMaskIfExists, FromFloat, IAACropAndPad, Lambda, LongestMaxSize, Normalize, PadIfNeeded, RandomCrop, RandomCropNearBBox, RandomResizedCrop, RandomSizedBBoxSafeCrop, RandomSizedCrop, Resize, SmallestMaxSize, ToFloat.

All other augmentations have the default value of p set 0.5, which means that by default, they will be applied to 50% of instances of input data.

Let's take a look at the example:

import albumentations as A
import cv2

p1 = 0.95
p2 = 0.85
p3 = 0.75

transform = A.Compose([
    ], p=p3)
], p=p1)

image = cv2.imread('some/image.jpg')
image = cv2.cvtColor(cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB)

transformed = transform(image=image)
transformed_image = transformed['image']

We declare an augmentation pipeline. In this pipeline, we use three placeholder values to set probabilities: p1, p2, and p3. Let's take a closer look at them.


p1 sets the probability that the augmentation pipeline will apply augmentations at all.

If p1 is set to 0, then augmentations inside Compose will never be applied to the input image, so the augmentation pipeline will always return the input image unchanged.

If p1 is set to 1, then all augmentations inside Compose will have a chance to be applied. The example above contains two augmentations inside Compose: RandomRotate90 and the OneOf block with two child augmentations (more on their probabilities later). Any value of p1 between 0 and 1 means that augmentations inside Compose could be applied with the probability between 0 and 100%.

If p1 equals to 1 or p1 is less than 1, but the random generator decides to apply augmentations inside Compose probabilities p2 and p3 come into play.


Each augmentation inside Compose has a probability of being applied. p2 sets the probability of applying RandomRotate90. In the example above, p2 equals 0.85, so RandomRotate90 has an 85% chance to be applied to the input image.


p3 sets the probability of applying the OneOf block. If the random generator decided to apply RandomRotate90 at the previous step, then OneOf will receive data augmented by it. If the random generator decided not to apply RandomRotate90 then OneOf will receive the input data (that was passed to Compose) since RandomRotate90 is skipped.

The OneOfblock applies one of the augmentations inside it. That means that if the random generator chooses to apply OneOf then one child augmentation from it will be applied to the input data.

To decide which augmentation within the OneOf block is used, Albumentations uses the following rule:

The OneOf block normalizes the probabilities of all augmentations inside it, so their probabilities sum up to 1. Next, OneOf chooses one of the augmentations inside it with a chance defined by its normalized probability and applies it to the input data. In the example above IAAAdditiveGaussianNoise has probability 0.9 and GaussNoise probability 0.6. After normalization, they become 0.6 and 0.4. Which means that OneOf will decide that it should use IAAAdditiveGaussianNoise with probability 0.6 and GaussNoise otherwise.

Example calculations

Thus, each augmentation in the example above will be applied with the probability:

  • RandomRotate90: p1 * p2
  • IAAAdditiveGaussianNoise: p1 * p3 * (0.9 / (0.9 + 0.6))
  • GaussianNoise: p1 * p3 * (0.6 / (0.9 + 0.6))